Glossary of Print Terms

A list of common terms used in the commercial print industry.


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

3 digit
A sortation class using the first 3 digits in the zip code for mail owners who wish to use the work share program to receive a discount.

5 digit
A sortation class using the first 5 digits in the zip code for mail owners who wish to use the work share program to receive a discount.


A

A4 Paper
The size is 210 x 297mm and used for Letterhead. Paper size defined by the ISO 216.

AADC
USPS Automated Area Distribution Center

Above the Line
Advertising through television, radio or published media is “above the line” expenditure. Direct marketing is “below the line”.

Abrasion Resistance
The resistance to scratching of a surface of paper by other paper surfaces or materials.

Absorbency
The ability of a material to take up moisture.

Accordion Fold
A type of paper folding in which each fold runs in the opposite direction to the previous fold creating a pleated or accordion affect.

Accrual Partner
A partner that purchases points in a sponsor’s program.

Accrual Rate
The rate at which customers earn points in a program. For example, earn 1 point for every $1 spent.

Acetate
A transparent or translucent plastic sheet material of a variety of colors, used as a basis for artwork and overlays.

Achromatic
“Without color” … black, white and gray.

Acid-free Paper
A paper made from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age.

Acquisition
The events or activities undertaken to obtain new customers. Acquisition may be done periodically through specific marketing campaigns or on an ongoing basis. The types or quality of new customers can have a significant and lasting effect on key performance indicators and future customer loyalty to the brand.

ACS
Address Change Service – an automated process providing change-of-address information to mailers.

Actinic Rays
Light exposure that affects chemical changes in paper.

Activation Rate
Most typically used in the credit card industry to indicate the percentage of customers receiving a new credit card who actually activate the card.

ADC
Area Distribution Center, A USPS processing facility that receives and distributes mail destined for specific ZIP Code areas under the Managed Mail Program (MMP).

Additive Color
In color reproduction, the red, green and blue colors (RGB). When lights of these colors are combined they create the sensation of white light.

Address Service Requested
An endorsement line in a designated area on a piece of mail that requests the postal service provide a new address for a person no longer residing at the current mailing address.

Adhesive Binding
The glue fastening of printed sheets or ‘signatures’.

Adhesive-coated
Paper coated on one side with an adhesive that can be activated by moistening (gummed papers) or by heat (heat sealing), or which is permanently tacky (for pressure-sensitive permanent & removable applications).

Aerate
This refers to a manual process whereby an air stream is blown onto paper sheets to create a riffling effect that separates the sheets as they are fed to the printing press.

Affinity Card
A co-branded credit card linked to a special consumer interest e.g. a charity, sports club etc.

Affinity Marketing
Campaigning to a customer/consumer group with similar interests.

Against the Grain
Printing or folding at 90˚ angle to the grain of the paper. Cross grain.

Air-Dried
Drying paper by contact with air, as opposed to machine-dried (paper dried by contact with heated cylinders).

Album Paper
A wood pulp paper with an antique finish used for pages of photo albums. Also called “back”.

American Paper Institute
An organization that correlates all paper-related information.

Antiquarian
Largest known handmade paper (53 x 31 inches).

Antique Finish
A paper surface with a natural rough finish.

Appreciation Gifts
Also known as “Surprise and Delights.” Rewards that are sent to customers without “earning them” through points or other specific behaviors. A local coupon booklet of restaurant discount coupons, cleaning coupons and other entertainment coupons.

Aqueous Coating
Also called flood coat. A water based coating applied on press to protect & enhance the printed image.

Art Paper
A paper evenly coated with a fine clay compound which creates a hard smooth surface on one or both sides.

Aspect Ratio
The dimension of a mail pieces expressed as ratio of height to weight.

Aspirational Award
These are generally travel or luxury goods that a customer will “aspire to,” and thus motivate desired changes in behavior. These are generally very high in perceived value.

Attrition Model
An attrition model predicts which customers are most likely to “leave,” meaning those who have a high probability of discontinuing use of a company’s goods or services.

Attrition Rate
The rate of fall-off in regular respondents, or the percentage of customers this year who are no longer a customer next year.

Auto Enrollment
Customers are enrolled into a program without requesting to be involved in the program.

Auto Redemption
When a program member’s account balance reaches a specific threshold of points, a reward is automatically generated. This is a passive reward since the member does not choose to receive it.

Automation Discount
Discount given to mail owners when certain rules and regulations are met with postal barcodes.

Average Spend
The average amount a customer spends per individual sales transaction. A key objective of a loyalty program is to increase this metric.

Award
An item that is purchased by the exchange of points or other program currency.

Award Expiration
The automatic voiding of issued but unredeemed points, often used to create ‘breakage’.

Award Fulfillment
The process by which awards are requested by or issued to a customer. Fulfillment may include warehousing and security for the award item, order entry, customer service, postage, shipping and handling and returns.

Award Issuance
The exchange of member points into awards for which the member has qualified.

Award Redemption
The exchange of an issued or qualified award for goods or services.

Award Tier
Some programs may group awards into specific tiers. For example, Tier One would consist of several awards valued at 5,000 points; Tier Two, 10,000 points; Tier Three, 20,000 points; etc. The benefits of this structure are to create breakage between levels and to create customer motivation to “stretch” up to a more valuable set of awards.
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B

B2B
Business-to-Business – the use of direct marketing in the promotion of goods and services from one business to another.

B2C Business-to-Consumer
Direct communication from a company (e.g. retailer) to a member of the public.

Backbone
That portion of the binding, which connects the front of the book with the back of the book.

Back End
Loyalty programs are generally divided into front end and back end activities. The back end refers to all processes that relate to point redemption. For example, back end processes are responsible for award fulfillment and setting the value of points on the reward side. 5,000 points may have a perceived value of 1 cent/point ($50), but at 10,000 points, may be worth 2 cents/point ($200). Escalating value of points on the back end is one of many techniques that serve to give a company’s best customers a little something extra, and to encourage participants to “stretch” to the next level.

Back Lining
The fixing of a material, either paper or cloth, to the back of a book before it is bound.

Back Up
Printing on the second side of a sheet after the first side has been printed.

Bangtail
A perforated, removable piece of paper on the flap or back of a reply envelope.

Bank Paper
A thin uncoated stock used for making carbon copies.

Bar Code
Used by retailers to scan goods at the checkout. The bars convert into a unique code for each item.

Bar Code or Delivery Point Barcode
A POSTNET barcode consists of 62 bars: beginning- and end-frame bars and five bars for each of the zip code digits (ZIP + 4 code), plus the last 2 digits of the primary address or P.O. Box and a “correction digit.” The mail is sorted through use of this barcode to the carrier and walking route level.

Barcode Read Area
The space on the lower right corner of an envelope that must remain free of printing, writing, or symbols and is reserved for the barcode.

Baryta Paper
A coated stock (barium sulfate compound) used for text impressions on typesetting machines.

Basic Sheet Size
Parent sheet size of a grade of paper. 25 x 38 for book papers; 20 x 26 for cover papers; 22 1/2 x 28 1/2 for bristols; 25 1/2 x 30 1/2 for index.

Basis Weight
The weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size for a particular grade.

Basket Analysis
Analyzing the association of individual product items purchased in the same transaction.

Behavior – Current & Desired
Current behaviors refer to what a company’s customers are doing now, such as frequency of purchase, purchase characteristics, share-of-customer and trends in behavioral segments. Desired behaviors represent what the company wants its customers to do in the future, such as spend more or purchase more frequently.

Below the Line
Opposite of ‘above-the-line.’ Promotional channels such as direct mail, telemarketing, electronic media, displays, leaflets and brochures, and sales promotion and other media.

Benday
A uniform pattern of dots, lines and other textures on artwork.

Benefits
Ongoing privileges of being a member of a program. These may include express lines for program members and invitations to members-only events. Benefits help a customer feel recognized for their patronage. Also known as Customer Benefits.

Bible Paper
A thin but strong paper (opaque), used for Bibles and books.

Bind
The joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.

Bindery
The department, or business, which collates, glues, and finishes the production of books pamphlets, or other printed products.

Binding
The various methods used to secure loose leaves or sections in a book; e.g., saddle-stitch, perfect bound.

Black
A color used with cyan, magenta, and yellow in 4-color printing, represented by “K”.

Blanket
Rubber-surfaced pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset press, to which the inked image is transferred and then transferred to the paper.

Blanket Cylinder
Part of a rotary press that transfers the image from the plate cylinder to the press sheet/substrate.

Bleed
An extension of the printed image beyond the trim edge of the printed sheet.

Blind Emboss
A design or bas relief impression that is made without using inks or metal foils.

Blind Folio
A page number not printed on the page. (In the book arena, a blank page traditionally does not print a page number.)

Blind Image
An image that has lost its ink.

Blistering
Although seemingly dry, paper does contain approximately 5% moisture. In cases where there is excessive moisture, and the paper is passed through a high heat-drying chamber, the moisture within the paper actually boils and causes a bubble or blistering effect.

Blocking
Ink transferring to another sheet after printing, making them stick together.

Blotting Paper
Extremely soft and absorbent stock, used when absorbency of ink or water is critical (such as desk blotters).

Blueline
An analog proof made from films. The films are exposed on light sensitive paper that renders only in blue. An older process still used in some printing companies.

BMC
Bulk Mail Center, newly termed an NDC.

Board Paper
General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover or 200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays and postcards. Also called paperboard.

Body-Height
Also known as “x-height”; the distance from the base line to the top of a lowercase letterform in a given font; varies depending on font family / alphabet’s design.

Bolts
The edges of folded sheets of paper, which are trimmed off in the final stages of production.

Bond paper
A grade of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying, where strength and permanence is required.

Book Block
Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but not yet covered.

Book Paper
Generic term for coated and uncoated papers. Basic size is 25 x 38.

Bounce
A plate registration problem that repeats on a printed sheet.

Box Cover Paper
A lightweight paper used expressly for covering paper boxes.

Box Enamel Paper
A glossy coated paper used to cover paper boxes.

Box Liners
A coated paper used on the inside of boxes which are used for food.

BRC or BRE
Business Reply Card or Business Reply Envelope

Breakage
The difference between points issued and points redeemed. Breakage may occur from participants who drop out of or lose interest in a program, expiration of points or point balances that are beneath the first award level.

Bricks & Mortar
Businesses/retailers that operate a physical store, as opposed to just the Internet.

Brightness
Light-reflecting property of paper or pulp. Brightness measurements compare paper and pulp with a reference standard (measured on a scale of 1 to 100). Bleached kraft pulps range in brightness from the low 80s to over 90 and unbleached mechanical pulps range from 55 to 62.

Bristol Board
A board paper of varied thickness having a smooth finish and used for printing and drawing; used for business cards, programs, file folders.

Broad Fold
A term given to the fold whereby paper is folded with the short side running with the grain.

Broadsheet
The largest newspaper format characterized by long, vertical pages, typically 22” (559mm).

Broadside
The term used to indicate work printed on one side of a large sheet of paper.

Brocade
A heavily embossed paper.

Bronzing
The effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing. A metallic powder is used to produce a metallic lustre.

Buckle Folder
A paper-folding machine that forces a sheet between two rollers, causing it to curve and then fold.

Buckram
A coarse sized cloth used in the bookbinding process.

Build a Color
Two or more screened tints which overlap to produce a new color, the additive process is called a build.

Bulk
A term given to paper to describe its thickness relative to its weight.

Burnishing
Creating a polished finish on paper by rubbing with stone or hand smoothing a surface.

Burn – Open & Closed
Open burn refers to the ability of a participant to redeem for rewards from several companies. Closed burn means that reward options are limited to only those that the sponsoring company provides.

Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
Using external services providers who have special expertise or lower costs/overheads of services and functions.

Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR)
The strategic analysis of business processes and the planning and implementation of improved business processes.

Business Reply Mail (BRM)
A mail piece designed for mail owners to receive information back from either prospects or current customers.
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C

C
Cyan color in 4- color process printing.

C/A
Change of Address

C1S or C2S
Paper which is coated on one side (C1S) or coated on both sides (C2S).

Calendering
A method of surface-finishing paper between polished rollers (calendar rolls) to increase the smoothness and glossy finish.

Caliper
(1) Thickness of paper in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter (ppc). (2) Device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.

Call to Action
What the customer is instructed to do by the communications campaign. This may include calling, stopping by or visiting a web site to enroll in the program, referring a friend, completing a survey or simply using the product.

Camera-ready Copy
Finished art supplied for production to a printing company, with all the image elements positioned for printing.

Campaign
A term given to a coordinated series of activities in advertising, promotions or sales.

Campaign Effectiveness
Measures the success (or otherwise) of campaigns.

Campaign Management
A marketing campaign is a set of promotions that are directed at a specific group of customers to get them to behave in a certain way. Managing the campaign involves coordinating the activities such as customer segmentation, design, fulfillment and analytics reporting.

Carbonless Paper
Papers treated with chemicals and carbon derivatives that are activated by pressure.

Card Deck
A mailing consisting of a series of postcards, each promoting a different product, service or program.

Card Stock
A heavyweight paper also known as cover. Used as covers of catalogs, brochures, books or business cards.

Cartridge
A rough finished paper used for wrapping.

Carrier Route
A specific group of addresses assigned to a postal carrier from a designated delivery unit ( Post Office).

Case Bind
To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.

Casein
A milk byproduct used as an adhesive in making coated papers.

Case
The covers of a hardbound book.

CASS
Code Accuracy Supporting System – a service that examines and improves the accuracy of delivery point zip codes and carrier route information by diagnosing and correcting the inaccuracies thus eliminating charges for bad addresses.

Cast-coated Paper
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet; achieves higher light reflectance than typical “gloss” papers.

Chain Lines
Lines that appear on laid paper as a result of the wires of the papermaking machine.

Chalking
A term used to describe the quality of print on paper where the absorption of the paper is so great that it breaks up the ink image creating loose pigment dust.

Channel
The method of distributing products and services to end customers. Retailers, resellers, wholesalers are examples of different channels.

Channel Profitablity
Analyzes channel performance and profitability by product revenue and total sales.

Channel Score
A male/female score that creates a bend on the back of the stock. Used to eliminate cracking when folding.

Chase
A metal frame in which metal type and blocks (engravings) are locked into position to make up a page.

Chip Card
A plastic card with an embedded computer chip. The chip is used to store security information in payment cards and stores points balances, name, date of birth etc., in loyalty cards.

Choke
The technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline trap or outline so the image stands off the background and does not blend into it. Also called shrink or skinny.

Chrome
The depth or strength of a color measured for purity and saturation.

Churn
A term that describes customer attrition, or customer defection. A high churn rate implies high customer disloyalty. Often loyalty programs are introduced to improve retention.

CIELAB (or CIE L*a*b)
A three-dimensional color mapping system that describes all colors visible to the human eye; color reference to the perception of color, as specified by the International Commission on Illumination; used in color management systems.

Clay-Coated Boxboard
A strong, easily folded boxboard with clay coating used for making folding boxes.

Clean-Release Cards
Clean release cards use multiple barrier coatings, along with kiss-cutting to enable easy, peelable coupons.

Clicks & Mortar
A business that has successfully integrated its online e-commerce channel with its offline Bricks & Mortar (street) outlets.

Closed Economy
Equity programs whose hard benefits are provided exclusively in the form of the sponsor’s product/service.

Closed-End Mailer
Manufactured inline, on a web press, double cutoff technology enables a pocket-formed envelope to be inserted with multiple personalized components.

Closed-Loop Analysis
A continuous improvement process in which data analysis, campaign planning and customer interaction are combined in a virtuous “closed loop” where execution of the campaign through customer interaction produces metrics that can be further analyzed for better campaign planning.

Close Up
A mark to indicate that closing the space between characters or words is needed. Used in proofing stages.

Cluster Analysis
A data mining technique for grouping data into groups (clusters) with similar characteristics.

CMYK
The abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four subtractive colors (process colors) used in color printing.

Coalition Model
Reward customers with promotional currency shared between 2+ partners. Provides ability to trace & reward individual behavior, great potential to create value, customer acquisition vehicles and expenses are shared among the partners.

Coated Paper
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.

Coated Stock
Any paper that has a mineral coating applied after the paper is made, giving the paper a smoother finish.

Co-Branded Card
A (normally payment) card issued by two companies. For example Visa and XYZ Retailer.

Cockle
A paper surface created by air drying, giving the paper a wavy look.

Cold Type
Type produced without the use of characters cast from molten metal.

Collate
Finishing operation that organizes printed matter in a specific order as requested.

Collating Marks
Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back of signatures indicating exact position in the collating stage.

Color Balance
The value of process colors in combination that simulate the colors of the original scene or photograph.

Color Break
In multicolor printing, the point, line or space at which one ink color stops and another begins. Also called break for color.

Color Cast
Unwanted color affecting an entire image or portion of an image.

Color Control Bar
The color bar that is printed on the side of the sheet. Individual colors are used to evaluate the strength and matching of the ink and dot gain.

Color Correct
The adjustment of the CMYK colors to reproduce the desired final colors effect.

Color Curves
The computer software instructions allowing users to change or correct colors before making plates.

Color Electronic Prepress System
A digital computer system to allow image assembly through the use of scanners, color correction, proofing and plate making. Abbreviated CEPS.

Color Gamut
The total range of hues possible using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system such as four-color process printing.

Color Model or Space
The description of the infinite colors described in nature for reproduction.

Color Separation
The process of dividing continuous tone images into the four colors used in printing (CMYK).

Color Sequence
Also called color laydown. The sequence of inks used on the press. The common printing sequence is black, cyan, magenta, and yellow.

Color Shift
A change in the color printed due to ink density or dot gain.

Co-mailing
The combining of flat-sized pieces of mail with different mail owners to achieve lower postage rates.

Commingle
The combining of letter sized mail from different mail owners to achieve lower postage rates.

Communications Channel
The method of talking to the customers, e.g. email, surface mail, SMS, call center, website etc.

Community Benefits
The rewards/benefits that program members receive by just being a member in the program, without using program points.

Composite Film
The film made by combining images from two or more pieces of film onto one film for the making of plates.

Composite Proof
A proof of all the color separations accurately positioned to show how the final printing will appear.

Conditioning / Condition
Allowing paper to adjust to temperatures and humidity in the printing plant prior to its use, to cure or season paper so it matches the environment of the printing press.

Consumer
A member of the public who purchases products or services.

Consumer Segment
A group of individual consumers who have like characteristics such that they can be communicated with in the same way.

Contact Platemaker
A plate making machine that uses direct contact of film as the means to make a plate for printing.

Continuity
Purchases made in small but regular quantities rather than all at once, i.e., Book-of-the-Month Club, and shipped regularly.

Contrast
The difference in tone and color in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.

Control Group
Core group of target population that would be interested in general promotion, but is not exposed to the current promotion.

Control Package
The direct mail piece used as the baseline to measure the performance of test packages with different formats, offers, or messaging.

Co-op Mailing
Different companies coordinating a mailing that provides offers from each in the same envelope.

Copalletize
The process of combining addressed, presorted mail from different sources into pallet-sized drop-shipments.

Corner Marks
Marks printed on a sheet to indicate the trim or register marks.

Cost Benefit Analysis
Measuring the Return on Investment (ROI) of a program to calculate whether it’s worth implementing.

Cotton Fiber Paper (Rag)
Paper that partially or wholly consists of cotton fibers derived from textile clippings or cotton linters.

Cover / Cover Paper
1) The outer covering of a book. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back. 2) A term describing a general type of paper used for book covers, pamphlets, posters, menus, etc.

Coverage
The coverage of ink on a sheet, typically expressed as heavy, medium, or light.

Crash
Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along the spine of a book to increase strength of binding. Also called gauze, mull and scrim.

Creasing
Process of pressing or folding paper with a steel strip to create a straight line for folding.

Creep
Also called push out. It is where the folded signature extends slightly beyond the outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust.

Critical Mass
When a program reaches critical mass, it has sustained enrollment and has accomplished sufficient behavioral change to make it self-supporting.

C.R.M./CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
Refers to the methodologies, strategies, software, and Web-based capabilities that help an enterprise to organize and manage customer relationships. Companies utilize this approach to gain a better understanding of their customers’ wants and needs.

Crop Marks
Marks used to limit the edge of the printing image, indicating where the printing image ends on the page for trimming.

Crossover
The art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.

Cross-selling
The strategy of promoting additional products to current customers, often based on their past purchases. Cross-selling is designed to achieve incremental sales by deepening the customer’s relationship with the company and decreasing the likelihood of the customer switching to a competitor.

CSR
Customer Service Representative

Ctn weight
Weight of one carton (ctn) of paper, in pounds.

Cure
The process of drying inks to ensure adhesion to the sheet.

Curl
Not lying flat and tending to form into cylindrical or wavy shapes. A term to describe the differences of either side of a sheet relative to coatings, absorbency etc.; the concave side is the curl side.

Currency
The exchange mechanism that allows a participant to swap equity (earnings) into an award. Types of currency may include points, miles, credits, rebate dollars or others.

Customer Acquistion Cost
The cost of acquiring a new customer through marketing and promotion. The cost that is saved every time an existing customer is retained.

Customer Acquistion
Increasing the size of the customer base by acquiring new customers.

Cutoff
On a web press the distance between the knives that cut the paper into sheets after printing. Also defined as the circumference of the impression cylinder.

Cut Sizes
Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.

Cutting Die
Usually a custom-ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.

Cutting Machine
A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing.

CWT
Abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman numeral C=100.
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D

Dandy Roll
During the paper making process while the paper is still wet, it passes over a wire mesh cylinder (dandy roll), which imparts surface textures on the paper. This is also the stage where the watermark is put onto the paper.

Data Capture
Electronic or manual input of information onto a database for future marketing use.

Data Mining
The process of using software tools to sift through large amounts of information in a database to find patterns, groups, statistical correlations, and relationships.

Data Warehousing
The extraction, consolidation and analysis of operational data within an organization.

DDU
Delivery Destination Unit

Dead Mail
Mail that is undeliverable as addressed and cannot be returned to the sender for lack of a return address.

Deboss
An imaged pressed into or indented into the paper.

Deckle
A paper with an irreglar edge and often decreased thickness, made in cover and text weights and frequently used for announcements.

Deckle Edge
Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking machine instead of being cleanly cut. Also called feather edge.

Decoy
Also known as “salting,” a designated name on a mailing list that can signal unauthorized use of the list.

De-duping
The removal of duplicated data from a mailing list.

Demy
A term that describes a standard-sized printing paper measuring 17.5 x 22.5 in.

Densitometer
A photoelectric instrument that measures transmitted or reflective light. Reflection densitometers are used to control the density of ink on the sheet by reading the densities printed in the color bar.

Density
The weight of paper compared to the volume. In most cases, higher density indicates higher strength.

Density Range
The degree of difference between the darkest and lightest areas of ink. Also called contrast ratio. The relative thickness of a layer of printed ink; the ability of a color to absorb light reflected from it or block light passing through it.

Device Independent Colors
Colors that can be described across different output devices to image the same file and will appear the same.

Dialogue
Consistent exchange of ideas and value between customer and company that leads to a more productive, more profitable relationship.

Die
A hardened steel engraving stamp used to print an inked image. Used in the production of good quality letter headings. A plate or illustration defining the area to be cut, scored, stamped, embossed or debossed out from a printed sheet.

Diffuse Highlight
A type of highlight in an original or in a reproduction which comprises the lightest neutral white area(s) of an image, including some detail, and which will print with the smallest halftone dot.

Digital Dot
A printing dot created by a computer and printed out by a laser printer or imagesetter. Digital dots are uniform in size.

Digital Proofing
A proof produced from digital data without the need for films. Also known as Direct Digital Color Proof (DDCP).

Dimensional Stability
The qualities of paper to stabilize its original size when undergoing pressure or exposed to moisture

Diploma
A fine paper made specifically for the printing of diplomas, certificates and documents.

Direct Mail
Advertising mailed to targeted markets.

Direct Marketing
Any advertising activity which creates and exploits a direct relationship between you and your prospect or customer as an individual.

Direct Marketing Interactive
Marketing activity that is measured by a response or purchase.

DMA
Direct Marketing Association – the leading global trade association for organizations implementing direct marketing tools and techniques.

Dog Ear
Occurs when you fold into a fold (such as a letter fold). At the side of one of the creases you get an indentation. It may look like a small inverted triangle.

Dot Gain
A defect in printing in which the ink dots print larger than they should, creating darker and more saturated colors and reducing detail.

Dot Matrix Printer
An electronic printer in which each character is formed from a matrix of dots.

Dots-per-inch (DPI)
The measure of resolution of digital devices such as scanners, monitors, laser printers, imagesetters and monitors as they relate to the printed page.

Double Bump
Printing an image twice to increase the layers of ink.

Doubling
Printing defect appearing as blurring or shadowing of the image. Doubling may be caused by problems with paper, cylinder alignment, blanket pressures or dirty cylinders.

DP
“Dual Purpose” for use in printing and copying.

DPI (Dots Per Inch)
A measure of the printing resolution of a screened image or printed page.

DPV
Delivery Point Verification identifies whether a ZIP + 4® coded address is currently represented in the USPS® delivery file as a known address record. The DPV Product allows users to confirm known USPS addresses as well as identify potential addressing issues that may hinder delivery.

Drawdown
A printed sample of the job using the correct inks and substrates. Also called pull-down.

Drill
To drill a hole in a printed matter.

Drop Shipment
Private transportation of mail from the preparation point to the postal facility nearest the destination of the mailing.

Dry Back
The process where inks become weaker in density as they dry.

Drying Time
Time it takes for something such as ink to dry or harden; can vary by paper, printing conditions, climate, etc.

DSF
Delivery Sequence Files standardize mailing addresses to improve deliverability.

DSMS-drop ship management system
The DSMS program enables authorized users to build consolidated loads of palletized plant-verified drop shipment (PVDS) mail from multiple jobs and mailing locations and to create consolidated Forms 8125-CD, Plant-Verified Drop Shipment (PVDS) Consolidated Verification and Clearance — DSMS. Forms 8125-CD’s are created using electronic data.

Dual-purpose Bond Paper
Bond paper suitable for printing by either lithography (offset) or xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond paper.

Dull Finish
Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish.

Dummy
A term used to describe the preliminary assemblage of copy and art elements to be reproduced in the desired finished product; also called a comp; a mockup of the final product.

Duotone
A halftone reproduction of an image using the superimposition of one contrasty color halftone (traditionally black) over another color halftone.

Duplex Paper
Paper which has a different color or finish on each side.

Durometer
Instrument that measures the hardness in rubber in units called ‘durometers’.
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E

Earn – Open & Closed
Earn is a term used to reference how a customer accrues equity in a program. Open earn refers the accumulation of points or other currency from any participating source or partner within the program, whereas closed earn is restricted to the accumulation of currency only from within the participating source.

Effective Funding Rate
The actual rate at which customers earn points and rewards in a loyalty program. Typically calculated by dividing the actual price paid for an award by the loyalty program/the amount of $ that had to be spent to earn the award.

Eggshell Finish
The finish of paper surface that resembles an eggshell achieved by omitting the calendar process. Reference, calendar rolls.

Eight Sheet
A poster measuring 60 x 80 in (153 x 203cm) and traditionally made up of eight individual sheets.

Electronic Printing / Publishing
The technology or devices used to reproduce printing without the use of traditional ink, presses.

Emboss
To impress image in relief to achieve a raised surface. Also called cameo.

Embossed
A method of paper finishing whereby a pattern is raised above the paper when it is dry.

Embossing
To raise in relief a design or letters on card stock or heavy paper by an uninked block or die. In rubber and plastic plate making the process is usually done by heat. Can be done blind (not registering) or registering.

Emulsified
A condition in which something, usually ink, has become viscous or paste-like.

Enamel
A term that describes a glossy coating on paper.

Encapsulated PostScript File (EPS)
Encapsulated Post Script, is a file format usually used to transfer graphic images within compatible applications. Contains information for both the images and the PostScript commands for a digital device.

End Papers
The four page leaves at the front and end of a book which are pasted to the insides of the front and back covers (boards).

End Sheet / Papers
The sheets that connect the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Also called pastedown or end papers.

English Finish
A grade of book paper with a smooth finish on uncoated book paper; smoother than eggshell, rougher than smooth.

Engraving
Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface.

Enrollment / Re-enrollment
Becoming an “active” member in a loyalty program. Often performed online, through call centers, or at the point of purchase, enrollment makes the customer eligible for the benefits of the loyalty programs. Such membership may expire over time due to non-use at which point re-enrollment may be required for further program participation.

Envelope #9
Standard size envelope for business reply mail.

Envelope #10
Standard size envelope for business or commercial mail.

EP
Abbreviation used for envelopes.

Equity
The amount a participant has earned that is translated into points or other program values.

Equity Programs
Frequency/relationship/loyalty programs which use a promotional currency, allowing customers to accumulate a value redeemable for hard benefits.

Equivalent Paper
Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost the same.

Equivalent Weight
A term denoting the respective weights of paper of two different basic sheet sizes. For example, 80# cover is equivalent to 146# text.

Etch
A chemical process used to carve images onto a plate, also an acid solution added to the fountain water to keep the plate ink-free in non-printing areas.

Event Driven Programs
Programs that are driven by dates, i.e., birthdays, anniversaries, membership dates, etc.

Exit Strategy
The plan that details the process for ending a program.
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F

Facing Identification Mark (FIM)
The Facing Identification Mark (FIM) serves to orient and separate certain types of First-Class Mail during the facing-canceling process.

Fake Color
Halftone in one ink color printed over screen tint of a second ink color, in order to simulate the desired color.

Fan Fold
Paper folding that emulates an accordion or fan, the folds being alternating and parallel.

Fast Color Inks
Inks that resist fading over time.

Feathering
Tendency of ink on a rough or porous surface to spread.

Felt
In the papermaking process, a cloth conveyor belt that receives papers from the Fourdrinier wire and delivers it to the drier.

Felt Finish
Soft woven pattern in text paper.

Felt Side
Side of the paper that was not in contact with the Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to wire side.

Female Die
The lower portion of a die set that corresponds with the male die and serves as a support for the workpiece.

Fifth Color
An added color or finish used in the fifth position of a multi-color process.

Film Coat
Also called wash coat; any thinly-coated paper stock.

Film Laminate
Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.

Financial Model
A financial model is essentially the pro forma for the program. It projects enrollment, administrative costs, points accrued, points redeemed and the program’s ROI on a one-to five-year basis.

Fine Papers
Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as compared to coarse papers and industrial papers. Also called cultural papers and graphic papers.

Fine Screen
Screen with ruling of 150 lines per inch (80 lines per centimeter) or more.

Finish
(1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post-press operations.

Finished Size
Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.

Fit
Refers to ability of colors to be registered during printing. Good fit means that all images and elements register to other colors.

Flat Color
One color ink printing, also called spot color; also can refer to color lacking in density.

Flat Size
The size of a printed product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size.

Flats or FLTS
Classication of mail, larger than letter-sized, indicative of postal rate.

Flexography
A web printing process that uses rubber or plastic plates to carry the image; also referred to as “flexo”.

Flint Paper
A paper with a highly glazed and colored coating on one side.

Floating Variable
“Personalized” information that can be placed anywhere within a laser text, usually within a sentence.

Flock Paper
A paper that has very short, dyed fibers of rayon, cotton, wool, or other natural or synthetic material (flock) applied to an adhesive-coated surface to impart a velvet-or velour-like texture to a surface.

Flood
To cover a sheet completely with a finish or color.

Flush Cover
A cover that is trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared to overhang cover. Also called cut flush.

Flyleaf
Leaf, at the front and back of a casebound book, that is the one side of the end paper not glued to the case.

Foil Blocking
A process for stamping a design on a book cover without ink by using a colored foil with pressure from a heated die or block.

Foil Emboss
To emboss an image using a foil.

Foils
Papers that have a surface resembling metal.

Foil Stamp
A process where a foil is placed between a stamp and the paper, then heated. Through pressure, the color foil is transferred to the paper.

Folder
A bindery machine dedicated to folding printed materials.

Folding Endurance
The ability of a paper to withstand repeated folding under tension.

Fold Marks
Marks in the margin area of an image to indicate where to fold.

Foldout
A gatefold sheet (larger than the regular sheet) bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart.

Folio (page number)
A page number in a publication.

Form
The assembly of pages for printing, sometimes refers to one side of a signature. Also spelled forme.

Format
The type size, style, shape, layout or organization required of a layout or printed product.

Format (alt)
The way data is organized.

Formation
The distribution of fibers in a sheet of paper referring to structure and uniformity.

Form bond
Lightweight bond, easy to perforate, made for business forms. Also called register bond.

Form Roller(s)
The rollers either inking or dampening, that come in contact with the printing plate, on a printing press.

For Position Only (FPO)
Refers low resolution copies of photos or art used on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, to be replaced later with a high resolution version of the same image. Typically postal and addressing and variable data are represented as ‘FPO’.

Fountain
The ink trough or container on a printing press.

Fountain Solution
A solution of water, a natural or synthetic gum, and other chemicals used to dampen the plate and keep non-printing areas from accepting ink.

Four-color Process Printing (4-CP)
Printing that uses 4 colors, cyan, magenta, yellow, and black to simulate full-color images. Abbreviated as CMYK. Also called color process printing.

Four Color Hybrid Imaging (4CHI) | See Our Service
Combines the functional variety and economies of scale of inline web printing with the variability and relevance of digital color imaging.

Fourdrinier
A Fourdrinier Machine with a copper wire screen that receives the pulp slurry in the paper making process which will become the final paper sheet.

Free Sheet
Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities, as compared to groundwood paper. Also called woodfree paper; contains less than 10% paper groundwood mechanical pulp.

Free-Standing Insert
Printed material that is inserted loose inside a publication, or mailing package or piece.

French Fold
A sheet folded twice to make a four-page folder. Usually printed on one side only, and often used for announcements and greeting cards.

Frequency Marketing
Any sales or marketing strategy that rewards loyal customers for their repeat business.

Front End
Loyalty programs are generally divided into front end and back end activities. The front end refers to all processes that relate to point earning and accrual. For example, the front end tracks transactions and sets the value of a point at issuance in terms of the earning rate(s), such as 1 point earned for every $1 spent.

Fulfillment
Within the loyalty marketing industry, this refers to the processes associated with distributing requested rewards to customers (gift cards, merchandise, travel, experiences).

Full-range Halftone
A halftone ranging from 0 percent coverage in its highlights to 100 percent coverage in its shadows.

Funding Rate
The rate at which customers earn points and rewards in a loyalty program.

Furnish
The slurry mixture of fibers, water, chemicals and pigments, that is delivered to the Fourdrinier machine in the paper making process.
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G

Galley
Typeset material before it has been arranged into page form.

Galley Proof
Proof of type from any source, whether metal type or photo type before being made into pages.

Gang
To make the most of a sheet of paper. To print multiple jobs on the same sheet.

Gate Fold
A sheet folded into itself towards the gutter in overlapping layers.

GATF Star Target
A quality control aid used to detect dot gain, slurs, double-images, or spreading of images on a printed page. Consists of circles with pie-shaped lines that converge to the center and commonly printed with color bars on the edge of a press sheet.

Gathered
The printed signatures (folded sheets) assembled next to each other in the proper sequence for binding.

GEO Code
Assignment of geographic information such as latitude and longitude to street addresses and other map locations.

Ghosting
A faint image on the printed sheet appearing in a location where not intended; also a printed image that does not have sufficient ink to render it properly.

Gilding
Adding a gold leaf to the edges of a book. Typically applied to Bibles.

Glassine
A glossy, water resistant, transparent paper usually made from highly beaten chemical pulp. Typically used in foodservice.

Gloss
The high reflection of light on a sheet, caused by ink, varnish, laminate or coatings.

Grade
General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper.

Graduated Screen Tint
Screen tint that changes densities gradually and smoothly, not in distinct steps.

Grain Direction
Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during manufacturing. Also called machine direction.

Grain Long Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper.

Grain Short Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper.

Grammage
Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).

Graphic Arts Film
Film whose emulsion yields high contrast images suitable for reproduction by a printing press, as compared to continuous-tone film. Also called litho film and repro film.

Gravure
A specific printing process that is typically reserved for millions of impressions. A rotary printing process where the image is etched into the metal plate attached to a cylinder. Gravure presses have no blankets; the plates are cylinders carrying images made up of millions of cells that are filled with ink. An image is etched on the surface of a metal gravure plate. Also known as rotogravure. Also used for wallpaper, gift wrap and packaging.

Gray Balance
The dot values of cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that produce a neutral gray image.

Gray Component Replacement (GCR)
Technique of replacing gray tones in the yellow, cyan and magenta films, made while color separating, with black ink. Abbreviated GCR. Also called achromatic color removal.

Grind Edge
Alternate term for binding edge when referring to perfect bound products.

Grindoff
Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered signatures (or folded sheets) before perfect binding.

Gripper Edge
The edge of a sheet of paper passing through a sheetfed press containing the gripper margin, or, in other words, that edge of the sheet which is grasped by the grippers of the press.

Grippers
Mechanical fingers that pull the paper through the printing unit of a press.

Groundwood Paper
Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp created when wood chips are ground mechanically rather than refined chemically.

GSM
The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter).

Guillotine Cutter
Cutting device used to trim paper sheets; a blade hinged to a large board that is used to accurately measure and consistently cut paper.
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H

Hairline (Rule)
A very thin line used in a layout. Usually less than .5 point in size.

Halftone
The method of reproduction of a continuous-tone image through a screening process; to convert the image to a series of dots.

Halftone Paper
A high finish paper that is ideal for halftone printing.

Halo Effect
Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. Also called halation. The halo itself is also called a fringe.

Hard Benefit
A tangible reward, which may be earned in its entirety, which requires the program sponsor to spend out-of-pocket dollars to provide it, and for which the member would otherwise have to pay.

Hard Dots
Halftone dots with no fringe or soft edges, and prints with almost no dot gain.

Hardening
The stage in ink drying when it has solidified completely on the paper surface and will not transfer.

Hard Points
Points, awarded within a Loyalty program, that are awarded contingent upon a purchase.

Head-to-tail/Head–to-toe
Page printed on both sides with second side fed with front side’s tail first.

Heat Set Web
Web press equipped with an in-line oven to dry ink, thus enabling an in-line workflow.

Hickey
Spot or imperfection in printing, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket.

High Bulk Paper
Paper stock that is comparatively thick in relation to its basis weight. These grades are typically made to caliper.

High-fi Color
Color reproduced using six, eight or twelve separations, as compared to four-color process. The result is a greater color matching range in printing.

High Finish
Paper that has a smooth, hard finish applied through calendaring or another similar process.

Highlight Area
Lighter parts of a continuous-tone image, a photograph or halftone compared to any midtones or shadows.

High Value Customer
An economic view of a customer that measures how profitable the customer is to the company, instead of measuring the profitability of product or service lines.

Hinged Cover
The scored cover of a book that folds 1/8 inch (3mm) from the spine so it folds at the hinge, instead of along the edge of the spine.

HLS
Abbreviation for hue, lightness, saturation.

Holdout
A property of coated paper with low ink absorption which allows ink to set on the surface with high gloss. Papers with too much holdout cause problems with set off.

Hot Spot
Printing defect caused by incomplete draw-down during contact plate making, leaving an area of weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.

Householding
Grouping people and their accounts by household so they receive only one mailing per residence.

House Sheet
This is a term that refers to a paper that a printer keeps on hand in the plant. Also called floor sheet.

Hue
The main attribute of a specific color such as yellow or green that distinguishes it from other colors.
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I

Image Area
The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage.

Imposition
Placement of images or pages in the proper position or sequence so that they will be in the desired location on the final press sheet(s).

Impression
Reference to the paper passing through one color printing unit. Also the speed of a press is rated with regard to number of impressions per an amount of time.

Impression cylinder
The part of a rotary press that puts the paper in contact with the blanket cylinder so that an image is transferred to the paper.

Imprint
To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee’s name on business cards.

Incentive Program
A program with items of perceived value added to an offer or sales goal to encourage a specific response. Can be targeted at consumers, but more typically refers to employee or sales force or channel programs.

Index Bristol
A relatively thick paper stock.

Indicia
A pre-printed postage permit on a piece of mail, i.e., Bulk Rate Postage Paid, Non-Profit Postage Paid, including the city of origin and the permit number to be billed for the postage.

Indirect Process
Method of photographic, screen printing stencil preparation in which the stencil is exposed and developed on a support base and then mounted onto the screen.

Indirect Relief
A relief printing technique that involves transferring ink from a relief form (i.e. raised plate) to a rubber-covered cylinder which then makes an imprint on the paper; also referred to as ‘dry offset printing’

Industrial Papers
A term used to denote papers such as janitorial, sanitary or heavy packing papers.

Informal Balance
A design treatment in which images are placed in a layout in such a way that the visual impression appears balanced on an invisible center line.

Ink Balance
Relationship of the densities and dot gains of process inks to each other and to a standard density of neutral gray.

Ink Fountain
The ink trough or container on a printing press.

Ink Holdout
Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper. Also called holdout.

In-Kind Awards
The host company’s own products and services.

Ink Jet Printing
Plateless printing that produces images on paper directly from digital data. Droplets of ink are sprayed and controlled by digital signals to produce images.

Ink Viscosity
The measure on an ink’s resistance to flow; an ink with high viscosity does not flow easily, but one with low viscosity flows easily.

Inner Form
Form (side of the press sheet) whose images all appear inside the folded signature, as compared to outer form.

Inserting
Finishing operation that involves placing components into an envelope or other vehicle.

Inserts
Additional items printed and placed within a publication but not bound to it. Also, additional items in a mail package or newspaper.

Intaglio Printing
Printing method whose plate is engraved, etched or stippled to make cavities to contain the printing ink. Gravure and engraving are the most common forms of intaglio. Also called recess printing.

Integral Proof
Combined separations shown on one piece of proofing paper, not layered film.

Interleaves
Extra blank pages inserted loosely into book after printing.

Invisible Points
Offers/rewards of which customers are unaware of the accumulation. Used for scoring based on behavior/profit margin of purchase.

Iridescent Paper
A coated stock finished in mother-of-pearl.

Irregular Parcel
A mail category for those parcels that do not meet the designated dimensions of a machinable parcel.

ISO14000 Standards Registration
An internationally recognized set of environmental management systems.

ISO9000 Standards Registration
An internationally recognized set of quality management standards (sometimes referred to as a Quality Management System; QMS)
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J

Job Lot Paper
Paper that didn’t meet specifications when produced, has been discontinued, or for other reasons is no longer considered first quality.

Job Number
A number assigned by a printing company to a job for record keeping.

Jogger
A vibration machine to align sheets of paper into a compact, even pile.

Johnson Box
The top part of the letter, set above the body of the letter, that states the main message of the offer aka the letter’s “headline.”

JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group. A commonly used method of compression for photographic images. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. Also supports 24-bit color.
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K

K
Abbreviation for black in four-color process printing. The ‘K’ in CMYK.

Keep Standing
To hold type or plates ready for reprints.

Kerning
Adjusting spacing between letters or characters.

Key
To code copy to a dummy by means of symbols, usually letters.

Keylines
The outlines on finished art or mechanical showing the exact size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic elements.

Key Negative or Plate
Negative or plate that prints the most detail, thus whose image guides the register of images from other plates. Also called key printer.

Kiss Cut
An incomplete die-cut often used to produce stickers; a very light impression.

Knife Folder
Paper folding machine that uses a steel blade to push a sheet of paper between two rollers to create a fold.

Kraft Paper
Strong paper used for wrapping and to make grocery bags and large envelopes.
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L

Label Papers
Papers used for labeling and wrapping; typically coated on one side, the other either uncoated or coated with an adhesive.

Laid Finish
Grids of parallel lines at equal distances on the cover to simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the grain.

Laminate
A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) bonded by heat or pressure, providing protection against liquid and heavy use. Can be polyester or polypropylene, and typically range in thickness from 1.3mil to 10mil.

Lap Register
Ink registration where ink colors overlap slightly, as compared to butt register.

Laser Papers
Papers with special coatings or hard finishes that are optimized for laser printers and copiers.

Lay Edge
Edge of a sheet of paper being fed into a printing press.

Layout
The arrangement of text, headlines, graphics, and pictures on a page.

Lead edge
The portion of a sheet of paper that enters the printing press first.

Leading
In typography, refers to the distance between the baselines of successive lines of type.

Leaf
One sheet of paper folded to make two pages in a publication/book.

Leatherette Finish
Heavy papers or cover stocks embossed to simulate the texture of leather.

Ledger Paper
Strong, smooth bond paper used for keeping business records. Also called record paper.

Letter fold
Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold.

Letter Paper
In North America, 8.5” x 11” sheets. In Europe, A4 sheets.

Letterpress
Method of printing from raised surfaces, either metal type or plates whose surfaces have been etched away from image areas. Also called block printing.

Letter-size Mail
Dimensions are max. 11-1/2” long by 6-1/8” high and 1/4” thick.

Lift Note
A folded sheet, usually written by someone other than the main writer of the letter, e.g., a testimonial, used to deliver a “last chance” marketing message.

Ligature
In typography, two or more characters designed as a distinct unit and commonly available as a single character. There are five f-ligatures (fi, fl, etc.) plus the diphthongs (Æ, Œ, etc.).

Lightweight Paper
A stock with exceptionally high opacity for its weight, designed for printing applications (such as catalogs or direct mail booklets); basis weight is often 28-40# text weight.

Lignin
Substance in trees that holds cellulose fibers together. Free sheet has most lignin removed; groundwood paper contains higher amounts of lignin.

Line Copy
Monochrome copy suitable for imposition without using a halftone screen.

Linen Finish
Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth.

Lineup table
A table with an illuminated top used for preparing and checking alignment of page layouts and paste-ups.

Linotype
Manufacturers of a range of high resolution phototypesetting machines such as the 100, 202, 300 and 500. The 100, 300 and 500 series are capable of processing PostScript files through an external RIP and typesetting desktop publishing files direct from disk at 1270dpi and beyond.

List Broker
A list specialist hired by a mailer to make the necessary arrangements to use other companies’ lists. Brokerage services usually include: research, list selections, recommendations and logistics so that the rented lists arrive at the proper time.

List Cleaning
The process of updating a list in order to remove any undeliverable addresses. Other cleaning activities could include removing duplicates, bad debts, names on the DMA Mail Preference Service, prison ZIP Codes, etc.

List Exchange
An agreement between two companies for the use of each other’s list.

List Protection
Lists are protected by review of the mailing piece, the mailer (renter), insertion of seeds by the list owner and obtaining a guarantee from the mailer (renter) that the mailer will only use the list as many times as the mailer has paid.

List Rental
The arrangement between the list owner and mailer in which the owner gives the mailer a set of names for one-time usage, for which the list owner is paid a royalty by the mailer.

List Sequence
The order, usually by ZIP Code/post code, in which names and addresses appear on a list.

Lithocoated Paper
A paper that is coated with a special water-resistant material which is able to withstand the lithographic process.

Lithography
Method of printing using plates that uses oil or fat and gum arabic to divide the smooth surface into hydrophilic regions which accept the ink, and hydrophobic regions which reject it and thus become the non-print areas.

Live Area
The area on a mechanical or finished art within which images will print. Also called safe area.

Live Stamp
An actual postage stamp affixed to a piece of mail as opposed to metered mail or indicia.

Long-grain
Paper in which the fiber orientation (grain) is parallel to the longest sheet dimension.

Looseleaf
Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages in a publication.

Loupe
A magnifying lens used to inspect film plates and the printed sheet to examine registration and dot formation.

Low Finish
Paper that has not been surface treated, and which thus retains a comparatively rough finish.
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M

Machinable
Mail that is the correct size and weight to be safely sorted by mail processing equipment.

Machine-Coated
Paper that has had a coating applied to either one or two of its sides during the papermaking process.

Machine Direction
An alternate term for (long) grain direction.

Machine-Finish
A paper finish that results from the interaction of the paper with the Fourdrinier process as opposed to post machine embossing.

Magenta
One of the four process colors, denoted by the letter M.

Mail Date
The date the mail enters the postal stream.

Mail Piece
The entire contents of a piece of literature that is mailed to an address.

Mail Preference Service (DMA MPS)
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) offers a service for individuals who want their names removed from mailing lists so they stop receiving direct mail.

Mailers Keyline
A line given to mail owners in order to help them identify or mark mail for their own purpose.

Makeready
All work done to set up a press for printing. Makeready paper is part of waste or spoilage.

Make-up
All elements combined to form the printed image.

Making Order
Order for paper that a mill makes to the customer’s specifications, as compared to a mill order or stock order.

Male Die
Die that applies pressure during embossing or debossing. Also called ‘force card’. Works in tandem with a female die.

Margin
The space around the live or safe area of finished art or the printed sheet.

Market Penetration
A measure of marketing effectiveness expressed in terms of the number of customers or revenue a company has in a particular market segment, divided by the total number of companies or possible revenue in that market.

Mark-Up
Instructions written to indicate changes, directions or special information.

Mask
To prevent light from reaching part of an image, or to prevent ink from printing in an area. Also called knock out.

Master
A plate used on a duplicating press.

Match Print
A four color print that closely simulates the colors and quality of a printed sheet.

Matte Finish
A coated paper finish that goes through minimal calendaring.

Mechanical
Camera-ready paste-up of artwork. Includes type, photos and line work, all on one pasteboard.

Mechanical Bind
To bind using a comb, coil, ring binder, post or any other technique not requiring gluing, sewing or stitching.

Metallic Ink
Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal.

Metallic Paper
Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose color and gloss simulate metal.

Metered Mail
A way of affixing postage to a piece of mail by a specific piece of equipment certified by the postal service.

MICR
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, ink that can be scanned by Optical Character Reader machines. This type of toner is used frequently by banks to produce checks.

Mil
The thickness of plastic films as printing substrates are expressed in mils. One mil is 1/1000 inch.

Misting
Phenomenon of droplets of ink being thrown off the roller train. Also called flying ink.

Mixed AADC
Category of mail pricing and dleivery that indicates less than 150 pieces.

Mock Up
A constructed reproduction of the final job layout containing instructions for printing.

Moire
Undesirable pattern resulting from incorrect screen angles for printed colors of overprinting halftones.

Monarch
Paper size (7” x 10”) and envelope shape often used for personal stationery.

Mottle
Spotty, uneven ink absorption mostly in solid areas. Also called sinkage.

Mouldmade
Deckle-edge papers made on cylinder machines.

MSR – Member Service Representative
A call center agent dedicated to responding to loyalty member questions and requests.

Mull
Coarse muslin glue used for book binding and notepads needing strength.

Mullen Testing
A specific test of tensile paper strength; an important factor if web presses are used for printing.

Multi-channel Implementation
Refers to marketing programs that are deployed using more than one media channel.

M Weight
Weight of 1,000 sheets of paper in any specific size.
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N

National Change of Address (NCOA)
National Change Of Address, a database maintained by the USPS of people who have put in a change of address from when moving from one location to another.

National Distribution Center (NDC-was BMC)
A facility designed to sort and distribute standard mail.

Natural Color
Very light brown color of paper. May also be called antique, cream, ivory, off-white or mellow white.

Negative
Film containing an image in which the dark and light values are opposite of the original.

Nest
To place a piece inside a part or all of another piece such as a card with directions inside an invitation.

Nested
Signatures (folded sheets) assembled inside one another in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to gathered. Also called inset.

Neutral Gray
Gray with no hue or cast.

Newsprint
Paper used in printing newspapers. Considered low quality and “a short life use.”

Nipping
An application of pressure to the spine of a book to force out excess air in the binding process.

Nixie
A direct mail letter that is undeliverable for any number of reasons and is returned to the sender.

Nominal Weight
When the basis weight of paper differs from the actual weight, the term nominal weight is used.

Non Heatset Web
Web press without a drying oven; prints only on uncoated paper and dries primarily by absorption and evaporation. Also called cold-set web and open web.

Non Impact Printing
Electronic printing that creates images on paper without contacting it, such as a laser printer, ink-jet printer or copier.

Nonreproducing Blue
A light blue ink or pencil that does not record on graphic arts film, therefore may be used to preprint layout grids and write instructions on mechanicals.

North/South Labels
Mailing labels that read from top to bottom and can be affixed with Cheshire equipment.

Novelty Printing
Printing on items rather than paper. Known as advertising specialties or premiums.

NPV
Net present value, or the present value of all cash inflows and outflows of a customer, project or investment at a given discount rate.
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O

OCR
Optical Character Reader is a computerized mail processing machine that scans addresses on mail and then applies the associated barcode.

Offset Paper
A term for uncoated book paper. Intended for use on an offset lithography press.

Offset Printing
Printing technique that uses an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer ink from a plate to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.

On-Demand Redemption
As opposed to automatic redemption, customers request an award at a time of their own choosing over the telephone, via fax or internet.

Onionskin
A specific lightweight type of paper usually used in the past for air mail. Seldom used today (popular in the typewriter era).

Opacity
Quality of papers that defines its opaqueness or ability to prevent two-sided printing from showing through.

Opaque
A quality of paper that allows relatively little light to pass through.

Open Economy
Equity programs whose hard benefits include products and services other than and/or in addition to the sponsor’s product/service.

Open Enrollment
Anyone can enroll in a program but the individual must choose to opt into it.

Open Prepress Interface (OPI)
An automatic PostScript function that replaces FPO images with final high resolution ones.

Open Shop
A shop that does not require its workers to join or belong to a union.

Optical Brightener
A colorless dye added to the fiber stock or applied to the paper surface to enhance the paper’s brightness.

Optical Center
The point on a sheet of paper that is perceived by the human eye to be the center of the page; slightly above center to appear centered relative to top and bottom.

Optional Endorsement Line (OEL)
An optional endorsement line (OEL) may be used to label bundles instead of applying pressure-sensitive bundle labels or facing slips to the top piece of bundles. The OEL must show carrier route information or the type of bundle and ZIPCode information

Outer Form
The side of a press sheet containing images for the first and last pages of the folded signature (its outside pages) as compared to inner form.

Overhang Cover
A cover larger in size than the pages it encloses.

Overlay
A transparent covering of material taped to a mechanical, photo or proof where color break, instructions, or corrections are marked.

Overlay Proof
A color proof produced with four pigmented or dyed overlay films.

Overprint
To print one image or color over a previously printed image or color, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.
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P

P.S.
Acronym for “Postscript.” Many people read this first in a direct mail piece, as it stands out. It offers another chance to repeat an important selling point or to introduce a new or different benefit.

Padding
Joining of sheets together by applying an adhesion to one side; how notepads are made.

Page
One side of a leaf in a publication.

Page Count
Total number of pages in a book including blank pages.

Page Printer
The more general (and accurate) name used to describe non-impact printers which produce a complete page in one action. Examples include laser, LED and LCD shutter xerographic printers, ion deposition, electro-erosion and electro-photographic printers.

Page Proof
A proof of an entire page.

Painted Sheet
A sheet that has printing on it from edge to edge. Bleeds to the edge on all sides.

Panel
A section of a page created by a fold in the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.

Paperboard
Any paper with a thickness (caliper) of 12 points (.3mm) or more.

Paper Plate
A printing plate made of strong and durable paper in the short run offset arena (cost effective with short runs).

Papeterie
A high-grade soft paper used for personal stationery because it accepts handwriting well.

Parallel fold
Folding a sheet in the same direction to produce pages.

Parcel
A class of mail offered by the postal service for packages.

Parchment
A hard finished paper that emulates animal skin; used for documents, such as awards, that require writing by hand.

Parent Sheet
Any sheet larger than 11” x 17 ” or A3. The parent sheet is cut down to a press size sheet.

Participation
When a member in a program responds to dialogue. This includes calling the toll free number for information, visiting the program’s web site, making an additional purchase.

Partner
Another company that participates in a sponsoring company’s program.

Pasteboard
The page area (size) defined by computer software.

Payout Rate
Funding rate. For example, if 1 point is earned per every dollar spent, and if every point is worth 1 cent, then the payout rate is 1% of all purchases.

PE (Printer’s Error)
Changes to mark meaning printer error and showing a mistake by a typesetter, prepress service or printer as compared to an error or correction by the customer (AA-authors alteration).

Peeling
Delamination of the paper fibers.

Penetration
Refers to the drying of ink by absorption into the substrate.

Per M or /M
Per thousand (M = one thousand).

Perceived Funding Rate
The perceived rate at which customers earn points and rewards in a loyalty program.

Perceived Value
How awards are valued by the customer.

Perfect Bind
The type of binding that glues the edges of the sheets to a wraparound cover.

Perfector / Perfecting Press
Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass. Also called duplex press and perfector.

Perf Marks
Marks indicating where the perforation is to occur.

Perforating
The process of creating a line of small holes for the purpose of tearing off a part of the page.

Periodicals
A class of mail the post office offers to mail owners that meet certain mail qualifications and mail on a weekly, monthly or yearly occurrence.

Permanence
The degree to which a paper withstands or resists chemical action from impurities in the paper, or similar agents in the surrounding environment.

Personalization
The use of names, addresses, and other personal information on direct mail piece specific to the recipient.

Photopolymer Plates
Printing plates formed by bonding a light-reactive polymer plastic to a film or metal base; polymer emulsion hardens upon ultraviolet exposure and the unexposed areas are then washed away to leave an image area in relief.

pH Scale
A measure of a paper’s or liquid’s (i.e. fountain solutions) acidity; measured numerically on a scale from 0 (acidic) to 14 (alkaline) with Ph7 being neutral.

Pica
A printer’s unit of measurement. One pica is approximately 0.166 in. There are 12 points to a pica, 72 picas to an inch.

Piece Rate
The postage charge per piece of mail.

Picking
The lifting of the paper surface during printing. The tack, or pulling force, of the ink is stronger than the paper source, leaving unprinted spots in the image area.

Pigment
Particles are mixed into printing inks to create color and opacity.

Pile Feeding
A method of stacking paper at the feeder end of a press so that individual sheets are drawn from the top of the pile into the press.

Pinholes
Small imperfections in paper typically caused by undesired particles embedded in the stock during manufacture.

Pin Register
Technique of registering separations, flats and printing plates by using small holes, all of equal diameter, at the edges of both flats and plates.

PIP
Package Insert Program allows mailers to include a promotional piece in product shipments to individuals.

Planographic Printing
Printing method whose image carriers are level surfaces with inked areas separated from noninked areas by chemical means. Planographic printing includes lithography, offset lithography and spirit duplicating.

Plate
The piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced on a printing press.

Plate Finish
A hard polished paper surface created by applying pressure as the paper passes over polished metal plates or rollers.

Platesetter
A machine that makes plates directly from a digital file.

Player Model
A way to reward customers with another company’s promotional currency.

PMS (Pantone Matching System®)
Color charts that have numbered, preprinted color patches of blended inks used to display branded colors. The correct trade name for the system colors is Pantone colors.

Point
A unit of thickness to measure type size and leading; 12 points equal 1 pica; 72 points equal 1 inch.

Point Accrual
The predetermined means by which members within a Loyalty Program accrue program currency as an incentive or reward for purchasing products and services.

Point Caps
The amount of points a customer can earn in a given time can be limited, or “capped.” This can help limit fraudulent practices by participants.

Point Expiration
The automatic deduction of unused program currency from the member’s account for non-use. Point expiration is sometimes referred to as breakage.

Points
Units of currency used to signify the amount of customer equity earned by participating in a program.

Pop-Up
A printed piece containing a paper construction pasted into a paper fold which will pop up when the fold is opened. The “pop-up” forms a three-dimensional promotional illustration.

Porosity
A measurement of a paper’s permeability to air or compactness of fiber within a given set of conditions.

Portrait
The vertical orientation of a page as opposed to a horizontal orientation.

POS
Point of sale.

Positioning
The ‘character’ of the product or company, as opposed to what it is. The tone of voice used when communicating with people, the frequency of communication, and the types of offers all contribute to the positioning of a product or service.

Positive
Film containing an image in which the dark and light values are the same as the original.

Post Bind
Binding using a screw and post inserted through a hole in a pile of loose sheets.

Postage Statement
Mailer-generated documentation provided to the USPS reporting the volume of mail, the postage payable/affixed, and certification of applicable mail eligibility standards.

Postal Permit
An account that holds money at the post office for a mail owner.

Postal Pre-Sort
The sorting of items to be mailed to take advantage of postal discounts.

PostalOne!®
An electronic mail system the post office offers that allows their customers electronic access to mail documentation.

POSTNET
Postal numeric coding or the barcode system that codes the delivery destination information and 9-digit zip code on letter-size and flat-size mail.

Premium
Any paper that is considered better than #1 by its manufacturer.

Prepress
The work process to ready all elements needed for printing, are prepared for the press.

Prepress Proof
A color proof produced before any plates are made. Usually from a laser or ink jet printer.

Preprint
To print portions of sheets that will be used for later imprinting.

Presort
Process that sorts prepared mail sequentially from the lowest to the highest level, to destinations specified by the standard by which it is being mailed, i.e., first class, bulk, etc.

Press Check
Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined before the customer authorizes the full production to begin.

Press Proof
Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper specified for the job in advance of the production run.

Press Time
The amount of time needed to complete a job on press including time required for makeready.

Printability
The quality of a given paper to show reproduced printed images.

Print Engine
The parts of a page printer which perform the print-imaging, fixing and paper transport. In fact, everything but the controller.

Printer Command Language (PCL)
A language developed by Hewlett Packard for use with its own range of printers. Essentially a text orientated language, it has been expanded to include graphics capability.

Printer Spreads
Mechanicals made so the pages are imposed for printing, as compared to reader spreads. Pages are aligned as needed so it prints next to its true opposing page on a sheet, versus the way it will appear in the final book. Ex. pages 1 and 16, 2 and 15, etc.

Printing Plate
The surface used to carry an image on the printing press.

Printing Processes
The different methods of printing: relief, intaglio, screen, and lithographic.

Printing Unit
The unit containing the ink fountain, rollers & cylinders of a particular ink color.

Priority Mail
A class of mail the post office offers to mail owners that meet certain qualifications for mail over 15 ounces that requires First Class attention.

Process Color (Inks)
The colors used for four-color process printing: cyan, magenta, yellow and black.

Production Run
The press run to fulfill an order after all approvals, and makeready.

Product Trial
A consumer’s opportunity to test a product or service, usually without charge or with return privileges.

Promotional Model
An inexpensive model that creates the illusion of value through sweepstakes, games, punch cards, stickers, charity, collectibles and affinity.

Proof
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.

Proofreader Marks
Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and proofs.

Proportion Scale
A round mechanical tool used to calculate a percentage change of an original image scaled to its finished size.

Proprietary Model
A program structure that reward customers with the sponsoring company’s own promotional currency based upon the customer’s spending. This model is used to track and reward individual behavior, create value far in excess of actual cost and establish a continuity relationship.

Publishing Paper
Paper made in weights, colors and surfaces suited to books, magazines, catalogs and free-standing inserts.

PUR Binding
Stands for polyurethane reactive material; a hot melt adhesive usually used in binding.
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Q

Quality
The acceptable value of expectations of the printing process by the customer and industry as it relates to the printing job and final product.

Quarter-fold
A fold where a piece is folded in half and then in half again in the same direction.

Quarto
(1) Sheet folded twice, making pages one-fourth the size of the original sheet. A quarto makes an 8-page signature. (2) Book made from quarto sheets, traditionally measuring 9” x 12”.

Quick Printing
Printing using small sheetfed presses, called duplicators, using cut sizes of bond and offset paper.

Quire
An archaic measure of paper quantity, consisting of 24 sheets of a uniform size.
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R

Rag Paper
Stationery or other forms of stock having a strong percentage content of “cotton rags.”

Railroad Board
A thick, coated paper used for signs; usually waterproof.

Raster Image Processor (RIP)
A software that converts postscript information into bitmapped information for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.

Reactivation
A promotion that moves lapsed customers to start purchasing again.

Reader Spread
The layout of pages in numerical order as they would appear in a final book, or manuscript.

Real Time
Transactions that occur at present. Eliminates the lag time that results from transactions being captured, stored, and then fed into another database.

Ream
500 sheets of paper.

Recency
A measurement of when the customer last interacted with a program in a recorded event such as web site visit, making a purchase, calling the customer contact center and so on. Recency is usually considered the strongest predictor of future buyer behavior.

Recognition
The act of recognizing and thanking customers for their patronage. Recognition may include preferred program status, expedited handling, appreciation gifts, etc. The goal of recognition is to make customers feel special and appreciated.

Redemption
The process of exchanging program currency for an award.

Reflectance
Amount of light reflected from a paper’s surface.

Reflective Copy
Products, such as fabrics, illustrations and photographic prints, viewed by light reflected from them, as compared to transparent copy. Also called reflex copy.

Register
The positioning of two or more images in exact alignment with regard to the edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Printing is said to be “in register” when correctly positioned.

Register Marks
Cross-hair lines or targets on art to help keep flats, plates, and printing in register.

Regular Sizes
Or ‘stock sizes’; common sheet sizes that are cut and stocked by paper companies.

Relationship Chain
The voluntary exchange of information and value between the brand and the customer with the mutual expectation of gain.

Relationship Marketing
Building relationships with customers so that the customers are loyal, buy repeatedly, and continue as customers.

Relief Printing
A printing method where the ink is higher in some areas than others. Relief printing includes block printing, flexography and letter press.

Remoistenable Glue
Applied inline or offline, gum that can be licked or moistened to seal envelopes or reply cards.

Repeatability
The ability to keep film or plates that yield images in register for imagesetters, film plotters, and platesetters.

Repeat Purchasers
Customers who purchase from a retailer on more than one occasion, in contrast to those who are deemed “one-time purchasers.”

Reprographics
The general term for copying and duplicating.

Resolution
The ability of a device to record or output the fine detail of an image, based on DPI and line screen.

Resolution Target
An image, such as the GATF Star Target, that permits evaluation of resolution on film, proofs or plates.

Response Booster
Any device, token, premium or sweepstakes that will help raise the response rate of direct mail.

Responsive Device
Any form, such as an order card, on which respondents indicate their response to a direct mail offer.

Retention
Refers to the ability of a company to retain as many of its customers as possible; for example, by reducing churn or increasing repeat purchasing.

Return on Investment (ROI)
Commonly referred to as ROI, this term describes the profit from an investment as a percentage of the amount invested.

Reverse
The opposite of what you see. The image ‘reverses out’ of the ink color. Also called knockout and liftout.

Reward
An item of value that is exchanged for points, or offered as compensation for completion of desired behaviors.

Rewards Earning Ratio
The amount of time it takes a typical customer to earn an award.

Reward Sourcing
The activities associated with developing reliable sources of supply or vendors to provide the rewards in a customer loyalty, retention or incentive program.

RGB
Abbreviation for red, green and blue, the additive color primaries.

Right-Angle Fold
A fold that is made at a 90˚ angle to the fold before it.

Right Reading
Copy that reads correctly in the language in which it is written and how it appears in final art.

Ripple Finish
A surface effect created by paper mill embossing.

Roll Fold
A fold where one side of a piece is folded inward and then inward again at least once, similar to rolling a piece up.

Rotary Press
A printing press where the substrate runs between two rotating cylinders when making an impression.

Rotogravure
A type of intaglio or gravure printing process, in which an image is engraved onto a surface and then transferred to a sheet via a rotary printing press.

Round Back Bind
To bind with a curved spine rather than a flat spine.

Rules Engine
A set of instructions that awards points based upon a selected set of desired behaviors. Also converts spending volume into point values.
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S

Saddle Stitch
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.

Safety Paper
A paper that shows sign of erasure so that it cannot be altered or tampered with easily.

Sans Serif
A type style that does not have small features on letterforms called ‘serifs’ at the beginning or end of strokes.

Satin Finish
Another term for dull finish on coated paper.

Saturation Mailing
This is when marketing mail is sent to at least 90% of the residential addresses or at least 75% of combined residential and business addresses within a specific geographical area.

Scale
The percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged or reduced to achieve the correct size and resolution for printing.

Scanner
Electronic device used to scan an image into a digital file.

SCF
Sectional Center Facility, as designated by the first three numbers of a zip code.

Score (Scoring)
Impressions or cuts in flat material that facilitate bending or folding without cracking.

Screen Angles
Angles at which the halftone screens are placed in relation to each other. The common screen angles for separations are black 45 degrees, magenta 75 degrees, yellow 90 degrees and cyan 105 degrees.

Screen Density
Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows to print. Also called screen percentage.

Screen Printing
Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.

Screen Ruling
The number of rows, lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.

Screen Tint
The halftone dots that create a color rather than a solid ink coverage. Called Benday, fill pattern, screen tone, shading, tint and tone.

Scumming
An offset press condition in which the non-image area of the plate begins to accept ink.

Segment Mobility
The ability to move customers within one performance category into another, more profitable category.

Self Cover
A publication which not having a cover stock uses the same stock for the cover as the interior text pages.

Self-Mailer
A direct mail piece that is intended to be sent without an envelope or special binding.

Separations
The four-color process films holding images of one specific color per piece of film. Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black.

Serifs
A type style that features small strokes on letterforms, typically at the beginning or end of a stroke.

Serigraphic Printing
Printing method whose image carriers are woven fabric, plastic or metal that allow ink to pass through some portions and block ink from passing through other portions. Serigraphic printing includes screen and mimeograph.

Service Bureau
The business of using imagesetters to make high resolution printouts and film of files prepared on computers for the printing process.

Set
The ability of ink to stick to paper without smearing.

Setoff
When wet ink from the top of one sheet transfers to the underside of another as they lie in the delivery stack of a press. Also called offset.

Shade
Hue made darker by an additional screen of black, as compared to tint.

Shaded Watermark
A watermark with an image more opaque than the paper, appearing darker.

Shadows
The darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as compared to mid-tones and high-lights.

Share-of-Customer
The level of penetration of a customer’s total expenditures in any given product/service category which a marketer has succeeded in achieving.

Share-of-Market
The percentage of business (transactions or dollar volume) that one company has as compared to the total business available from all competitors within a category.

Sheet
A piece of paper (two-pages, i.e. both sides).

Sheetfed Press
A printing press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a web press which prints on rolls of paper.

Sheetwise Imposition
Descriptive of the method of printing both sides of a sheet of paper in which one side is printed, then the printed sheets are turned over and printed with another set of plates, the sheets retaining the same gripper edge.

Shelf Life
The length of time before an item becomes obsolete.

Shingling
In books and publications, the gutter margin is varied to compensate for creep. Creep is the problem; shingling is the solution. Also called stair stepping and progressive margins.

Short-grain
Paper in which the fiber orientation (grain) is parallel to the shortest sheet dimension.

Show Through
A problem that occurs when the printing on one side of a sheet is seen from the other side.

Side Stitch
Binding by stapling along one edge of a sheet. Also called cleat stitch and side wire.

Signature
A sheet of paper printed and then folded to form a section of a printed product. The number of pages in a signature is almost always a multiple of 4, usually a multiple of 8, and typically 16 or more on large presses.

Sixteen Sheet
A poster size measuring 120in x 80in (3050mm x 2030mm).

Size
Compound mixed with paper or fabric to make it stiffer and less able to absorb moisture.

Skew
Misalignment of a character(s), bar, or barcode related to the top or bottom edges of an envelope.

Skid
A platform support for a pile of cut sheets of paper (wooden pallet).

Slip Sheets
Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned between the “printed run” for a variety of reasons.

Slur
A condition in which an image appears blurred or unsharp, frequently due to press roller condition.

Smoothness
That quality of paper defined by its levelness, which allows for pressure consistency in printing, assuring uniformity of print.

Soft Benefit
An intangible consideration extended to a member as evidence of the member’s special status, and it usually takes the form of some sort of special treatment (special access, special deals/discounts, special experiences), often requiring little or no out-of-pocket funding by the sponsor.

Soft Dots
Halftones dots with considerable fringe that causes dot gain.

Soft Points
Points that have no monetary value since the value is derived from the benefit it allows the customer.

Solid
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.

Solo Mailing
A mailing that promotes only one product.

Soy-based Inks
More environmentally-friendly inks that use vegetable oils instead of petroleum products as pigment vehicles.

Specialty Printer
Printer whose equipment, supplies, workflow and marketing is targeted to a particular category of products.

Specifications (Specs)
The complete information described for a print job: page size, type size, specific colors, etc.

Spectrophotometer
Instrument used to measure the index of refraction of color for CIE color spaces.

Specular Highlight
A drop out highlight with no printable dots, thus no detail, as compared to a diffuse highlight.

Spine
Back or binding edge of a publication.

Spiral Bind
Binding using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.

Spoilage
Paper that, due to mistakes or accidents, must be thrown away instead of delivered printed to the customer.

Spoilage Allowance
Extra paper that it is allotted for inevitable waste, and to help ensure that the proper quantity is produced.

Spot Color
One ink applied to portions of a sheet, to highlight a specific area of the printed sheet. Usually refers to a PMS (non-process) ink.

Spread
Two opposing pages designed as one visual. There are reader spreads and printer spreads.

Stability
The quality of paper to maintain its original size when it undergoes pressure and moisture changes.

Static Eliminator
Device used to remove static electricity.

Step and Repeat
To copy an element on a page, then repeat it multiple times as a pattern.

Stock
A term for unprinted paper or other material yet to be printed.

Stocking Paper
Popular sizes, weights and colors of papers available for prompt delivery from a merchant’s or mill’s warehouse.

Stock Order
Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a printer from inventory at a warehouse, as compared to making a mill order.

Stream Feeder
Press element that overlaps sheets on the registration table, allowing the registration unit to run at a slower speed than the printing unit for a better image fit.

Subjective Balance
A design maneuver in which images are placed in a layout in such a way as to create the feeling of balance.

Substance Weight
Alternate term for basis weight, usually referring to bond papers. Also called sub weight.

Substrate
Any surface or material on which printing is done.

Subtractive Color
The color produced by light reflected from a surface, includes hues in color photos and colors created by inks on paper (cyan, magenta, yellow and black).

Sulphate Pulp
Paper pulp from wood chips pressure-cooked in a solution of caustic soda and sodium sulphide. Also known as Kraft.

Sulphite Pulp
Paper pulp made from wood chips pressure-cooked in a solution of bisulphite of lime.

Supercalendered Paper
Paper calendered using alternating chrome and fiber rollers to produce a smooth, thin sheet. Abbreviated SC paper, comes in SCA Plus, SCA, SCB and SCC, whereby the last letter indicates the grade quality.

Suppression File
A specific list of people who are not to be sent promotional mail, such as the marketer’s current customers, bad debt customers, people who have requested not to receive direct mail promotions and the DMA’s Mail Preference Service list.

Surprint
The exposure of a second negative superimposed on an exposed image of a previous image. Taking an already printed matter and re-printing again on the same.

SWOP
Abbreviation for Specifications for Web Offset Publications.
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T

Tab
A wafer seal used to secure a folded self-mailer.

Tabloid
Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of a broadsheet.

Tack
Refers to the stickiness of ink; ink’s ability to stick to a substrate.

Tag
Grade of dense, strong paper used for products such as badges and file folders.

Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
A computer file format suited for images from scanners and video devices.

Targeting
Selection of best customer prospects to fulfill specific company objectives.

Target Market
The “ideal” audience for a marketing effort. Usually defined in demographic and psychographic terms.

Tier Level
Programs may add escalating customer benefits and award earning opportunities by establishing membership tiers (e.g. silver, gold and platinum levels).

Teaser
An advertisement or promotion designed to excite curiosity about a subsequent advertisement or promotion.

Tensile Strength
A paper’s ability to withstand pressure.

Text Paper
Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid or linen. Some mills also use ‘text’ to refer to any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture.

The Lift
Improvement in response to a mailing to which modeling or segmentation has been applied.

Thermography
The process of printing using a heat sensitive ink to raise the ink up off the paper. Also called raised printing.

Thickness
See Caliper.

Thirty -Two Sheet
A poster size measuring 120in x 160in (3048mm x 4064mm).

Tier Mobility
The movement of customers between membership tiers.

Tint
Various even toned areas of a solid color.

Tip In
A separate insertion to a finished magazine or book.

Tip-On
An item glued to a printed piece.

Titanium Dioxide
A white filler pigment that increases the brightness and opacity of fine printing paper.

Tone Compression
Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to printed reproduction.

Tones
The values of white, black or colors; tints or shades.

Tooth
The rough surfaced finish of papers such as vellum or antique.

Topside (felt side)
The side of the paper nearest the top of the web as it comes off the paper machine. The other side is the wire side because of its direct contact with the endless ribbon of wire on the machine.

Total Area Coverage
The value of total ink coverage percentages, or total dot density, of the process colors.

Touch Plate
Plate that accents or prints a color that four-color process printing cannot reproduce well enough or at all. Also called kiss plate.

TracKard®
SPC’s proprietary paper-based, multi-ply CR-80 sized promotional cards. When manufactured inline, can be personalized and matched to the base mailer with a scannable barcode readable at point-of-sale.

Trade Shops
A printing shop that provides services only to other printers and does not work for the general public.

Traffic Builder
A direct mail piece intended primarily to attract recipients to the mailer’s place of business.

Transparency
Positive photographic image on film. Also called chrome, color transparency.

Trap
In multi-color printing, an allowance of overlap for two colors printed adjacent to each other, as a means of compensating for mis-register and to avoid gaps between colors.

Tri-fold
Both sides of a piece are folded inward, usually one-third the length of the piece.

Trim Lines
Marks or lines that are included on a layout and printed to help guide the paper cutter in trimming the paper pile.

Trim Size
The actual size of the printed material when cut and bound.
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U

UCA
Under color addition, is the technique of making color separations that increases the amount of cyan, magenta or yellow ink in shadow areas.

UCR
Under color removal, is the technique of making color separations that decreases the amount of cyan, magenta and yellow ink in mid-tone and shadow areas while the amount of black is increased. This improves trapping and can reduce makeready and ink costs.

Unbleached Pulp
Pulp that has not been treated with bleaching agents.

Uncalendared
Papers that are not smoothed by going through the calendaring process.

Uncoated Paper
Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.

Unders – Under run
A quantity of printed copies below the number specified in an order (possibly within a previously noted margin of error).

Unsharp Masking
Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear sharper (in better focus) than the original photo or the first proof.

Up
Refers to the imposition of multiple impressions of one image printed on a single sheet to take advantage of full press capacity. “Two up” or “three up” allows full usage of the sheet.

URL
This is an Internet address that enables others to access a webpage.

UV (Ultraviolet) Coating
Solvent-less inks applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light to prevent image degradation from exposure to sunlight.
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V

Value
The shadow (darkness) or highlight (lightness) of a color. Usually expressed in a percentage.

Value Added Proposition
Managing and enhancing the value to both the customer and the company within the relationship.

Value-at-Risk Customers
Any high-value, high-yield customer with a high propensity to churn.

Variable Imaging
Personalization done via a digital process.

Varnish
A thin protective coating applied to a sheet for protection and appearance.

Varnishing
A thin coating applied to printing to enhance appearance or protect the sheet.

Vellum Finish
A rough, toothy finish that is relatively absorbent for fast ink penetration.

Velour Paper
A term given to papers that are coated with an adhesive and then flock-dusted.

Velox
Brand name for high-contrast photographic paper.

Velvet
A paper flocked to resemble this textile. Similar to satin or dull finish.

Vested Equity
A lump sum of points given to a customer up front that can only be used as time passes or the desired behavior is exhibited.

Viewing Booth
Also called a color booth, where the lighting is conditioned and calibrated for proper viewing of color printed on a sheet.

Vignette
An illustration where the background fades to white or into the unprinted area of the paper.

Virgin Paper
Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to recycled paper.

VOC
Volatile organic compounds, petroleum substances used as the vehicles for many printing inks.
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W

Walk Sequence
The path the postal carrier walks, assigned by the postal service.

Wallet Flap
Style of envelope with a large flap that seals at the bottom of the envelope. The large flap is designed to be a response vehicle.

Wash Up
The process of cleaning rollers, fountains, screens, and other press components after a printing job.

Waste
Unusable paper or paper damage during normal makeready, printing or binding operations, as compared to spoilage.

Watermark
Translucent logo on paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still wet.

Web Break
The breakage of paper on a web press traveling through the press causing the paper to be rethreaded.

Web Gain / Web Shrinkage
The amount that the paper becomes stretched or shrinks during the printing on a web press.

Web Press
A press that uses roll paper rather than sheet paper, often with inline folding and cutting to form signatures. Web presses come in many sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).

Wedding Paper
A soft paper that is thick and holds up well under embossing.

White Space
Areas on a page where there is no printing.

Wire Side
Side of the paper that rests against the Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to felt side.

With the Grain
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to against the grain. See also Grain Direction.

Woodfree Paper
Made with chemical pulp only. Paper usually classified as calendered or supercalendered. Similar to work and turn, except that the page is tumbled from front to back so printing uses the same side guide but a different gripper.

Work and Turn / Imposition
The printing of one side of a sheet of paper, then turning it to print on the other side using the same plate and gripper, but the opposite side guide. The finished sheet is then cut to produce two complete copies.

Workshare Discount
A discount given to mail owners that do some of the work for the postal service on a mailing.

Wove
Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually a fine textured paper.

Writing Paper
A fine paper often used for stationary and identity purposes.

Wrong Reading
An image that is flopped and appears backwards when compared to the original.
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X

Sorry, no X terms at the moment.
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Y

Sorry, no Y terms at the moment.
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Z

Zeroing
The setting or calibration of a densitometer to a known value.

Z-Fold
A piece folded inward once and outward once forming the shape of the letter “Z.”
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